Oil of Orange Flower, Orange & Lemon, 'Essential Oils the Most Used in Perfumery' Part II, from Professor H. Dussauce 1868

 Excerpt from A Practical Guide for the Perfumer by Professor H. Dussauce 1868

"Oil of Orange Flower. - Two distinct odors can be obtained from the orange blossom, varying according to the methods of extraction.
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When orange flowers are treated by maceration, the orange flower pomatum is obtained. It requires sixteen pounds of blossom to enflower two pounds of grease divided over thirty-two infusions, that is half a pound of flowers to every two pounds of fat for each maceration.
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By macerating the pomatum in rectified spirits the extract of orange flower is obtained. in this state its odor resembles the original so much that with closed eyes the best judge cannot distinguish the extract from the flower.
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When orange flowers are distilled with water the otto is obtained, which is commercially known by the name neroli. The finest is obtained from the citrus aurantium, and is called neroli petale. The next quality (neroli bigarrade) is obtained from the citrus bigaradia; a second quality, which is considered inferior to the above, is the neroli petit grain, obtained by distilling the leaves and unripe fruit of the different species of the citrus.
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Its color varies from a reddish-yellow to a dark red; it is very fluid. it is sometimes adulterated with alcohol, or oil of small oranges.
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Oil of Orange. - Under the title neroli we have spoken of the odoriferous principle of the orange blossom. We have now to speak of what is known in the market as oil of orange.
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The otto of orange peel is procured by expression and by distillation. The peel is rasped in order to crush the little vessels that contain the oil. It has many uses in perfumery, it is the leading ingredient of what is sold as eau de Portugal, which may be prepared as follows:--
*

Lisbon Water.

Rectified spirit at 75°  . . . .1 gallon.

Otto of orange peel . . . . . 4 ounces.

            lemon zest   . . . . . 2 "

            rose             . . . . . ¼  "

Eau de Portugal.

Rectified spirit at 75°      . . . .1 gallon.

Ess. oil of orange peel . . . . . 8 ounces.

            lemon zest       . . . . . 2 "

            bergamot         . . . . . 1 ounce.

            otto of rose      . . . . . ¼  ". "

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Oil of Lemon. - This fine perfume is extracted from the citrus limonum by expression and also by distillation. The oil obtained by expression has a much finer odor and a more intense lemon smell than the distilled product.
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The otto of lemon found in the market comes principally from Messina, where there are hundreds of acres of lemon groves.
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Ordinary lemon oil weighs fourteen ounces per pint. It has a yellowish color, soluble in all proportions in pure alcohol. It is rapidly oxidized when in contact with the air and exposed to light. On account of this perfuming greases, as it assists all fats to become rancid. In the manufacture  of other compound perfumes, it should be dissolved in spirit in the proportion of six to eight ounces of oil to one gallon of spirit.

Disclaimer:

The 'Smelling History' series has been published for purposes of entertainment & education. It is not recommended to recreate the formulas and instructions outlined here. The methods and materials in these historical exerts could be extremely dangerous.

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