"Oil of Lavender. - Lavender is grown to an enormous extent at Mitcham, in Surrey, England, and at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, which are the places of production in a commercial point of view. Very large quantities are also grown in France, which is remarkably good, but by their fine odor the British products realize the in the market four times the price of that of continental growth. Half a hundred weight of good lavender flowers yields by distillation from fourteen to sixteen ounces of essential oil. The number of lavender plants upon an acre of ground would be about 3547, that is, if planted one yard apart and four feet between the rows. An acre would yield from six to seven quarts of oil.
There are two methods of making the essence of lavender: by distilling a mixture of essential oil of lavender and rectified spirit; 2d, by merely mixing the oil and the spirit together. The latter process yields the finest quality.
To produce a very fine distillate, take --
Otto of English lavender . 4 ounces.
Rectified alcohol at 75° . . 5 pints.
Rose Water . . . . . . . . . . . 1 pint.
Mix and distil 5 pints.
Essence of Lavender.
Otto of Lavender . . . .6 ounces.
Rectified alcohol . . . . . 1 gallon.
Pure oil of lavender should have a specific gravity from 0.876 to 0.880, and be completely soluble in five parts of alcohol. A greater specific gravity shows that it is mixed with oil of spike, and a less solubility that it contains turpentine.
Oil of Lemon. - By distilling the rosemary officinalis, a thin, limpid otto is obtained, having the characteristic odor of the plant, which is more aromatic than sweet. One hundred weight of the fresh herb yields about twenty-four ounces of oil. It is limpid, white, or yellowish; is lighter than water; its specific gravity = 0.91, and only 0.89 when carefully rectified.
Otto of rosemary is extensively used in perfumery, especially in combination with other ottoes for scenting soap. It is the leading ingredient of the Hungary water, which is this made: -
Pure alcohol at 95°. . . . . . . . . 1 gallon.
Otto of Hungarian rosemary . 2 ounces.
lemon peel . . . . . . . . 1 ounce.
melissa . . . . . . . . . . . 1 "
mint . . . . . . . . . . . . ½ drachm.
spirit of rose . . . . . . . 1 pint.
Extract of fleur d'orange . . . . . 1 "